1. – CONFRONTATION BETWEEN PLAYERS .
The negotiation is presented as an activity of change, a meeting sponsored by the parties. These players can represent their own interests or defend the interests of a group , the role of negotiators in the latter case is much more complex due to the implementation of the mandate and expectations about their behavior on the one hand , and the need for agreement another, depending for that confidence margin were told . This situation generates what is called dual membership .
Two . – THE CONCEPT OF DIVERGENCE
The meeting between the parties is a voluntary process designed to resolve differences .
The voluntary nature of it means that the parties may choose to join or not the process to settle their differences and accept any outcome.
There is always the desire not to agree , but sometimes incurring heavy losses for both sides , precisely to avoid the encounter is promoted because the protagonists depend on a decision that involves them , which a priori is not taken when deliberating , this is because there is a range of views regarding this decision that concerns them.
In this sense, negotiation is a joint exercise of decision-making, generally , we would say that the negotiations preceding a potential conflict precisely intervening to end hostilities.
Three . – NEGOTIATED ORDER
As for where scoping exercises , we see that negotiation occurs in all kinds of social system contributing to its continuity.
In any social system , even in the most repressive , the established order is always a negotiated order in so far as the decision of a party involves the agreement of other parties who have some power over the first.
This phenomenon is found in all models of society as a way of permanent connection .
Negotiation enables articulate , organize and perpetuate various forms of social interaction , nations negotiate as do governments , employers and trade unions , parents and children .
As noted Chalvin , negotiation emerges as one of the last attempts to maintain social connections .
4. – MIXED RELATIONS OF MOTIVATION
In the dynamics of the negotiation are involved the concepts of divergence and cooperation.
The effort to resolve their differences and reach a decision on the distribution of resources among the parties involved embark on a social relationship in which both together common and divergent interests , where the parties have simultaneously confronted with incentives to cooperate and incentives to compete.
Through negotiation , the parties resolve the dilemma competition – cooperation while maintaining or improving their positions and thereby protecting it from other groups or individuals. They get so keep conflict within acceptable limits , trading in this sense is not a debate , it’s a conversation without order.
Negotiating conflict is playing cooperation , the product of negotiation is formalized in terms of commitment representing roughly calculated result of a series of reciprocal concessions .
May . – POWER RELATIONS
Is required in any case of a power relationship between the parties to the negotiations for this result arises. This relationship can be statutory order , the standard hierarchical can say who must negotiate and who is not.
The standard may be charismatic staff , may represent that power in their area ( the oldest place )
It can be as a phenomenon of competence on the matter.
You can also represent someone who is the result of an alliance of interests between the parties.
As noted Chalvin , it is necessary to negotiate when the reasons do not require power , we would say that is not traded on principle , negotiations with a given situation of the parties .
Without any power relationship between the parties one of the parties could take unilaterally imposed obligation to the other . When the power of one is greater than the other negotiation has no reason to be and will be replaced by domination
June . – Interdependence RELATIONSHIP
According to social exchange theory of Thibaut AND KELLY , dependency exists when an actor results are determined by interpolation between their behavior and that of others .
Based on this principle suggests that negotiation arises from two circumstances :
The scarcity of resources creates competition among those who need the same resources on one side and the other an unequal allocation of itself that creates the need for exchange between the parties the different resources needed by each . This theory has also been studied by BACARACH LAWLER .
Rubbin , summarizes the character of relationships in defining negotiation that negotiation is ultimately the very interdependence of the parties.
July . – PROCESS THAT IS IN THE PERCEPTION OF THE STARS ,
Trading relations between the parties , involving efforts to influence perception and the other party assessment of the situation made by tactics such demands , threats , concessions , promises , in fact each party uses its perceptual abilities to disrupt the opponent’s tactics , while the latter conveys the impression you created.
The critical tactical . Is to manipulate the perception of power through tactics such as exaggeration, the boasts and argumentation.
The negotiation about creating a mutually acceptable definition of the relationship of power that will be the most beneficial way possible for each .
At the end of the process each party is motivated to comply with mirror image received from the other party.
Each actor , you need two sets of skills to persuade the other hand the direction of boast. On the one hand the need to project or put in the place of another and otherwise pose a situation consistent with self – projected image.
August . – PURPOSE ACCURACY AND PERFORMANCE MARGIN
If negotiation is an encounter between the protagonists, the result of confrontation during a deviation observed , requires each party holds a target to attack and leeway to reduce divergences.
It is necessary to have resources for concessions, a situation typical of negotiation is to be tactically prepared . Armed with arguments from the competitive and the cooperative aspect concessions .
9. – IS A PROCESS PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN TWO antagonistic
The negotiation is replaced by one side in the existence of cooperation for the sake of the survival of the system.
On the other hand in maximizing the goals and interests of each party.
This individual desire to maximize the interests and collective desire to achieve an equitable, cooperative aspect involves a conflict of the parameters involved .
In this respect the loyalty and organizational integration are key elements sought to develop consensus ideology by advocating that the survival needs of the negotiation is binding on all the others and that each party has to avoid instability and maximize loyalty for the bargaining power is strong, consistent and durable.
10 . – Externalized NEGOTIATION OF CONDUCT SOME SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS .
The pattern of relations during the negotiation is sequential rather than simultaneous . The whole point is that given sequential assessment exchanges , decision, down to an acceptable result.